Effects of 6-10 Hz ELF on Brain Waves
David S. Walonick
Minneapolis, MN
May, 1990



There is evidence that ELF magnetic waves can affect brain waves.  These set of experiments were designed to study the effects of ELF rotating magnetic fields on the brain.
The specific ELF frequencies I was interested in studying are 6-10 Hertz.  These frequencies are the same as those produced by the human brain in the theta and alpha states.  Generally, specific brain wave frequency ranges can be associated with mood or t
 of our waking hours as adults are spent in the beta state.
A question of importance is: "If we can electronically shift the brain wave frequencies to alpha or theta, will a person's moods or thought patterns change to those commonly associated with those frequencies?".  In other words, if we can electronically mo
When I began these experiments, I was well aware of the possible ethical implications involved in ELF research.  For example, if I were carrying an ELF transmitter operating at alpha frequencies, would the people around me be affected as well?  Would they
I decided to undertake this research with full knowledge of the ethical implications.  While there is the potential for misuse, a desire for knowledge and understanding are part of being human, and the potential benefits to humanity are great.  What if we
I began by collecting all the available research on ELF fields.  Lana Harris, a secondary research specialist, did an excellent job in acquiring virtually all the available research in this area.  In addition to a multitude of published journal articles, 

Equipment
The equipment required for this research was easily attainable, with the notable exception of a stable frequency counter with .01 Hertz resolution.  Accurate frequency measurements were essential for this research, so I designed and built a digital freque
Other equipment used is: a Biosone II Brainwave Monitor and Myosone 404 EMG Monitor (Bio-Logic Devices, Inc., 81 Plymouth Rd., Plainview, NY  11803); a Model 3011 Digital Display Function Generator (BK Precision Dynascan Corp., 6460 West Cortland St., Chi
The transducer was a 24" diameter hand-wound coil, consisting of 1000' of #25 magnetic wire.  The coil had a DC resistance of 32.4 ohms.  It was mounted on a 26" square piece of bakalite board for stability.  Two dowels were mounted with plastic ties onto

Experimental Design 
All twenty-two subjects were friends or acquaintances of the author.  There was no remuneration to participants.  The excitement or novelty of participating in a brain wave research experiment seemed to provide sufficient reward in and of itself.
Subjects were sent a pre-experiment letter briefly describing the intent of the experiment and what they could expect.  They were asked not to use any drugs or alcohol for 24 hours before their appointment, and not to wear any metal jewelry.  (It was thou
Upon arrival at the laboratory, participants were given a short orientation to the procedure and any questions they had were answered.  They were hooked up to the EEG monitor (frontal to occipital, midline) and then allowed to listen to a relaxation tape 
Each ELF exposure consisted of a ten second, sine-wave
transmission separated from one another by 45 - 60 seconds of no exposure.  The voltage fed to the coil was 3.1 VAC (RMS).  The coil was positioned 18" in front of the subjects head.
The outputs from the ELF transmitter (function generator) and the brain wave monitor were fed directly into the computer A to D board, allowing both to be displayed on the computer monitor (and recorded on disk) simultaneously.  The sampling rate of the A
Twenty-one frequencies were presented to each subject (from 6 to 10 Hertz in increments of .2 Hertz.  For half the subjects, these frequencies were randomly selected.  For the other subjects, they began at 10 Hertz and were decreased by .2 Hertz with each
Post acquisition software was used to visually examine the coherence (frequencies) and synchronously (phase relationship) between the transmitted ELF and prominent brain waves.

Results 
Examination of the computer data revealed substantial differences between subjects.  Some subjects showed lock-on (entrainment) over a wide frequency range, while other subjects showed no lock-on whatsoever.  In general, lock-on occurred most frequently f
One subject displayed lock-on for all frequencies from 7.4 to 10 Hertz.  Two subjects displayed no lock-on over the entire frequency range.  While I did not test a sufficient number of subjects to be statistically significant, I suspect that susceptibilit
Several interesting observations were readily apparent.
Lock-on generally occurred very rapidly... within a quarter of a second in most cases.  If lock-on did not occur at a specific frequency in the first second, it didn't at all.
When the brain did lock on, the amplitude of the brain waves increased to nearly double their normal size.  This is typical for naturally (non-ELF) produced alpha patterns.
The brain locked on to higher frequencies (9-10 Hertz) more readily, and maintained the lock-on for the entire duration of the transmission.  As the frequency was lowered (below 8.6 Hertz), lock-on for most subjects occurred in bursts, rather than being c
None of the subjects were able to consciously detect the presence of the ELF field.  One female subject was able to detect whenever the field started or ended, but could not accurately say when if it was on or off at any given time.  In other words, she w
When lock-on occurred, the brain waves lagged behind the transmitted ELF.  This appeared to have been the "reaction time" of the brain to the ELF waves (approximately 60-80
milliseconds).  More accurate experimentation is needed to
explore this relationship.
Subjects verbatim reports were quite revealing.  (Keep in mind that none of the subjects actually said they felt the ELFs.)  The most common verbatim reports occurred between 8.6 and 9.6 Hertz.  Common statements were subtle "tingling" sensations in the f
Lock-on occurred at lower frequencies more often when the transmitted frequencies were progressively lowered, rather than randomly presented.  It would seem that the brain prefers a gradual lowering of frequency rather than a sudden or abrupt change in fr
There was no significant correlation between subjects reported level of relaxation and the ELF frequency or the occurrence of lock-on.  Again, this may have been due to the extremely short duration of each transmission.

Summary
It is clear from these experiments that brain waves do in fact lock on to artificially produced ELFs in the 6 - 10 Hertz range.  It is equally clear that the 10 second transmission was not sufficient to alter subjects moods to any consistent degree.

Additional Observations
Since my original experiment, I have continued to study the interaction of ELF's and brain waves.  These mini-experiments were conducted more informally than my original experiment and the observations are based on only one or two subjects.  They should b
1. A sine wave produces lock-on more readily than a square wave or a triangle wave.  A sign wave output produces a rotating magnetic field where there is a gradual build up, collapse and reversal of the field intensity.  A square wave output produces a pu
2. The brain is sensitive to a wide range of intensities.  I have observed lock-on with power settings down to one half of a milliwatt.
3. Psychics and "sensitives" are neither more or less prone to lock-on than anyone else.  I have tested two well-known psychics and a Kahuna from Hawaii.  While all three subjects produced more alpha that usual, it was not related to the ELF generator and
4. Extended exposure to ELF's does alter moods, but the effect is subtle.  I was not able to duplicate the "dramatic psychoactive" effect that Robert Beck has reported.  Low frequencies (below 8 Hz) seem to produce a general agitation or uneasiness, while
5. I have exposed myself to ELFs for one and two hour durations and have found that the frequencies from 8.6 to 9.8 Hertz to be sleep inducing; however, it is impossible to eliminate the placebo effect from experiments I performed on myself.
6. I built and distributed several portable ELF generators for testing.  I have received many reports that indicate that falling asleep with the ELF generator operating is probably not a good idea.  People don't feel rested when they sleep with the ELF ge
7) I have found three definite beneficial uses for the ELF generator: a) for relaxation, b) to eliminate jet lag, and c) the elimination of seizures in a dog.

The Story of Maynooth
Shortly after completing my first experiments, my neighbor's dog began to have seizures.  Maynooth was a one year old, 190 pound Irish Wolfhound.  His seizures were occurring four to five times a week.  A seizure by a 190 pound dog is not a small affair. 
My neighbors took Maynooth to the vet, who prescribed phenobarbital to control the seizures.  The drug was not effective and Maynooth continued to have regular seizures.
After discussing Maynooth's condition with my neighbor, we decided to try a portable ELF generator that Maynooth could wear to control his seizures.  Seizures are accompanied by wild fluctuations in brain wave activity.  We hypothesized that a portable EL
I constructed a portable ELF generator about the size of a pack of cigarettes.  The ELF generator was powered by a nine volt battery and had two frequencies, selectable by a toggle switch (10.0 Hz and 7.83 Hz).  The 10 Hz frequency was chosen because prev
The schematic for the portable ELF generator is illustrated.  It is a twin-T oscillator followed by a high power 386 amplifier.  The twin-T was chosen because of its high stability and low distortion sign wave.  Construction is straight forward and the pl
Maynooth began wearing the generator in the spring of 1988.  We tried the 10 Hz frequency first.  The results of the experiment were astounding to say the least.  Maynooth's seizures stopped immediately when he began wearing the generator.  Furthermore, M
For the first three months, Maynooth wore the generator all the time in a cloth pouch from his collar.  After that, the generator was only used at night and simply placed near his sleeping area.
Maynooth has had a total of three seizures following his first use of the generator.  Two of these could be traced to malfunctions with the generator.  The first was a broken wire from the battery connector and the second was a dead battery.  The third se
Maynooth's owners were so convinced of the efficacy of the ELF generator, that they asked me to make a spare generator in case the one they had broke.  Maynooth's vet (at the University of Minnesota) showed curiosity in the generator, but not enough to ex
Maynooth still uses the ELF generator in his sleeping area at night.  The rechargeable battery is charged during the day so it is fresh each night.  (The battery lasts about 6-8 hours at a 10 milliwatt power setting).

Andrija Puharich's Watch
Dr. Andrija Pucharich sells a watch that he claims will work a shield for ambient high frequency ELF's (40-100 Hz).  An important feature of this watch would include shielding from 60 Hz power lines.
I had the opportunity to try one of his watches for a few days.  The owner was quite reluctant to part with it so I had to run all tests over just one weekend.
It is quite easy to monitor ambient 60 Hz radiation being absorbed by your body.  Simply touch the probe of any oscilloscope and you can watch the 60 Hz wave.  Your body is acting as an antenna and the amplitude on the oscilloscope is an indication of the
I attempted to determine if there was any measurable magnetic output from the watch.  I used a large roll of magnetic wire as a pickup coil and connected it to the input of an EEG monitor with five microvolt sensitivity.  The EEG voltage was fed directly 

The final test was to hook myself up to the EEG monitor while I was wearing the watch.  The output was fed into the computer so that I could do posthoc analysis.  I wore the watch for 15 minutes and recorded my brain waves.  The incidence of beta and alph
Since I had told the person I borrowed it from that I'd take good care of the watch, that precluded the idea of disassembling it.  I carried the watch with me in my backpack that weekend.  As luck would have it, the back cover of the watch fell off and I 
It is a digital "over-the-counter" type watch.  As far as I could tell, the watch was normal in every way except that there was a square sheet of copper (about 1 cm square), wrapped in plastic packing tape inside the back cover.  The tape was obviously us













With the copper removed, my equipment could still not detect the magnetic fluctuations produced by the watch.  If the copper sheet does do anything, my equipment was not sensitive enough to measure it.  This indicates that the amplitude of the magnetic fi
I do not know whether Puharich's watch works.  It did not reduce the electromagnetic radiation that my body was absorbing, nor did it alter my brain wave pattern in any way I could detect.  My current understanding of ELF's, electronics and magnetics does

Electromagnetic Pollution
When I began my research, I was only interested in the effects of ELF's on brain waves.  I have since come to believe that ELF's are only the tip of the iceberg.
Electromagnetic radiation may be the most harmful pollutant in our society.  There is mounting statistical evidence that cancer and other diseases can be triggered by electromagnetic waves.
ELF pulse-modulated radio waves work at the cellular level.  Cancer and birth defects have been increasing in this country since about 1950 (as television became popular).  The average resonant frequency of the body is around 82 MHz.  It is no coincidence
Even low intensity 60 Hz fields are capable of causing DNA damage and weakening the immune system.  Cancer cells exposed to 60 Hz electromagnetic fields for 24 hours show a sixfold increase in their growth rate.
The evidence is becoming overwhelming that cellular functions can be switched on and off through frequency specific electromagnetic radiation that induces nuclear magnetic resonance in the cell.  We may find that many diseases can be caused or cured by fr
In our technological society, there are few places to go where you will not be exposed to electromagnetic radiation.  Television, radio and microwave radiation are abundant in all metropolitan areas.  High voltage 60 Hz power lines crisscross the country.
The powers that control the energy and communications industries will stop at no end to prevent the public from learning the truth.  Their financial health depends on it.  Since the military is one of the largest producers of high power electromagnetic ra
We have probably reached a point where the only solution is in the form of a portable shield device.  ELF generators may be one possible solution.  My current research is in this area.
ossible solution.  My current research is in this arM-^@
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Other equipment used is: a Biosone II Brainwave Monitor and Myosone 404 EMG Monitor (Bio-Logic Devices, Inc., 81 Plymouth Rd., Plainview, NY  11803); a Model 3011 Digital Display Function Generator (BK Precision Dynascan Corp., 6460 West Cortland St., Ch